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Approximate combinatorial optimisation has emerged as one of the most promising application areas for quantum computers, particularly those in the near term. In this work, we focus on the quantum approximate optimisation algorithm (QAOA) for solving the Max-Cut problem. Specifically, we address two problems in the QAOA, how to select initial parameters, and how to subsequently train the parameters to find an optimal solution. For the former, we propose graph neural networks (GNNs) as an initialisation routine for the QAOA parameters, adding to the literature on warm-starting techniques. We show the GNN approach generalises across not only graph instances, but also to increasing graph sizes, a feature not available to other warm-starting techniques. For training the QAOA, we test several optimisers for the MaxCut problem. These include quantum aware/agnostic optimisers proposed in literature and we also incorporate machine learning techniques such as reinforcement and meta-learning. With the incorporation of these initialisation and optimisation toolkits, we demonstrate how the QAOA can be trained as an end-to-end differentiable pipeline.
Neural network is a dynamical system described by two different types of degrees of freedom: fast-changing non-trainable variables (e.g. state of neurons) and slow-changing trainable variables (e.g. weights and biases). We show that the non-equilibrium dynamics of trainable variables can be described by the Madelung equations, if the number of neurons is fixed, and by the Schrodinger equation, if the learning system is capable of adjusting its own parameters such as the number of neurons, step size and mini-batch size. We argue that the Lorentz symmetries and curved space-time can emerge from the interplay between stochastic entropy production and entropy destruction due to learning. We show that the non-equilibrium dynamics of non-trainable variables can be described by the geodesic equation (in the emergent space-time) for localized states of neurons, and by the Einstein equations (with cosmological constant) for the entire network. We conclude that the quantum description of trainable variables and the gravitational description of non-trainable variables are dual in the sense that they provide alternative macroscopic descriptions of the same learning system, defined microscopically as a neural network.
Machine learning (ML) has emerged into formidable force for identifying hidden but pertinent patterns within a given data set with the objective of subsequent generation of automated predictive behavior. In the recent years, it is safe to conclude that ML and its close cousin deep learning (DL) have ushered unprecedented developments in all areas of physical sciences especially chemistry. Not only the classical variants of ML , even those trainable on near-term quantum hardwares have been developed with promising outcomes. Such algorithms have revolutionzed material design and performance of photo-voltaics, electronic structure calculations of ground and excited states of correlated matter, computation of force-fields and potential energy surfaces informing chemical reaction dynamics, reactivity inspired rational strategies of drug designing and even classification of phases of matter with accurate identification of emergent criticality. In this review we shall explicate a subset of such topics and delineate the contributions made by both classical and quantum computing enhanced machine learning algorithms over the past few years. We shall not only present a brief overview of the well-known techniques but also highlight their learning strategies using statistical physical insight. The objective of the review is to not only to foster exposition to the aforesaid techniques but also to empower and promote cross-pollination among future-research in all areas of chemistry which can benefit from ML and in turn can potentially accelerate the growth of such algorithms.
Quantum-inspired neural network is one of the interesting researches at the junction of the two fields of quantum computing and deep learning. Several models of quantum-inspired neurons with real parameters have been proposed, which are mainly used for three-layer feedforward neural networks. In this work, we improve the quantum-inspired neurons by exploiting the complex-valued weights which have richer representational capacity and better non-linearity. We then extend the method of implementing the quantum-inspired neurons to the convolutional operations, and naturally draw the models of quantum-inspired convolutional neural networks (QICNNs) capable of processing high-dimensional data. Five specific structures of QICNNs are discussed which are different in the way of implementing the convolutional and fully connected layers. The performance of classification accuracy of the five QICNNs are tested on the MNIST and CIFAR-10 datasets. The results show that the QICNNs can perform better in classification accuracy on MNIST dataset than the classical CNN. More learning tasks that our QICNN can outperform the classical counterparts will be found.
One of the central difficulties in the quantization of the gravitational interactions is that they are described by a set of constraints. The standard strategy for dealing with the problem is the Dirac quantization procedure, which leads to the Wheeler-DeWitt equation. However, solutions to the equation are known only for specific symmetry-reduced systems, including models of quantum cosmology. Novel methods, which enable solving the equation for complex gravitational configurations are, therefore, worth seeking. Here, we propose and investigate a new method of solving the Wheeler-DeWitt equation, which employs a variational quantum computing approach, and is possible to implement on quantum computers. For this purpose, the gravitational system is regularized, by performing spherical compactification of the phase space. This makes the system’s Hilbert space finite-dimensional and allows to use SU(2)SU(2) variables, which are easy to handle in quantum computing. The validity of the method is examined in the case of the flat de Sitter universe. For the purpose of testing the method, both an emulator of a quantum computer and the IBM superconducting quantum computer have been used. The advantages and limitations of the approach are discussed.
Mohammad Ali Javidian,Vaneet Aggarwal,Zubin JacobNov 03 2021 quant-phcs.LG arXiv:2111.01536v1Scite!0PDFIn this paper, we propose circular Hidden Quantum Markov Models (c-HQMMs), which can be applied for modeling temporal data in quantum datasets (with classical datasets as a special case). We show that c-HQMMs are equivalent to a constrained tensor network (more precisely, circular Local Purified State with positive-semidefinite decomposition) model. This equivalence enables us to provide an efficient learning model for c-HQMMs. The proposed learning approach is evaluated on six real datasets and demonstrates the advantage of c-HQMMs on multiple datasets as compared to HQMMs, circular HMMs, and HMMs.
In this paper, we propose circular Hidden Quantum Markov Models (c-HQMMs), which can be applied for modeling temporal data in quantum datasets (with classical datasets as a special case). We show that c-HQMMs are equivalent to a constrained tensor network (more precisely, circular Local Purified State with positive-semidefinite decomposition) model. This equivalence enables us to provide an efficient learning model for c-HQMMs. The proposed learning approach is evaluated on six real datasets and demonstrates the advantage of c-HQMMs on multiple datasets as compared to HQMMs, circular HMMs, and HMMs.