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A major difficulty in quantum rewinding is the fact that measurement is destructive: extracting information from a quantum state irreversibly changes it. This is especially problematic in the context of zero-knowledge simulation, where preserving the adversary’s state is essential. In this work, we develop new techniques for quantum rewinding in the context of extraction and zero-knowledge simulation: (1) We show how to extract information from a quantum adversary by rewinding it without disturbing its internal state. We use this technique to prove that important interactive protocols, such as the Goldreich-Micali-Wigderson protocol for graph non-isomorphism and the Feige-Shamir protocol for NP, are zero-knowledge against quantum adversaries. (2) We prove that the Goldreich-Kahan protocol for NP is post-quantum zero knowledge using a simulator that can be seen as a natural quantum extension of the classical simulator. Our results achieve (constant-round) black-box zero-knowledge with negligible simulation error, appearing to contradict a recent impossibility result due to Chia-Chung-Liu-Yamakawa (FOCS 2021). This brings us to our final contribution: (3) We introduce coherent-runtime expected quantum polynomial time, a computational model that (a) captures all of our zero-knowledge simulators, (b) cannot break any polynomial hardness assumptions, and (c) is not subject to the CCLY impossibility. In light of our positive results and the CCLY negative results, we propose coherent-runtime simulation to be the right quantum analogue of classical expected polynomial-time simulation.
On-chip black hole: Hawking radiation and curved spacetime in a superconducting quantum circuit with tunable couplers
Yun-Hao Shi, Run-Qiu Yang, Zhongcheng Xiang, Zi-Yong Ge, Hao Li, Yong-Yi Wang, Kaixuan Huang, Ye Tian, Xiaohui Song, Dongning Zheng, Kai Xu, Rong-Gen Cai, Heng FanNov 23 2021 quant-ph arXiv:2111.11092v1
Hawking radiation is one of quantum features of a black hole, which can be understood as a quantum tunneling across the event horizon of the black hole, but it is quite difficult to directly observe the Hawking radiation of an astrophysical black hole. Remarkable experiments of analogue black holes on various platforms have been performed. However, Hawking radiation and its quantum nature such as entanglement have not been well tested due to the experimental challenges in accurately constructing curved spacetime and precisely measuring the thermal spectrum. Based on the recent architecture breakthrough of tunable couplers for superconducting processor, we realize experimentally an analogue black hole using our new developed chip with a chain of 10 superconducting transmon qubits with interactions mediated by 9 transmon-type tunable couplers. By developing efficient techniques to engineer the couplings between qubits via tuning couplers, we realize both the flat and curved spacetime backgrounds. The quantum walks of quasi-particle in the curved spacetime reflect the gravitational effect around the black hole, resulting in the behavior of Hawking radiation. By virtue of the state tomography measurement of all 7 qubits outside the analogue event horizon, we show that Hawking radiation can be verified. In addition, an entangled pair is prepared inside the horizon and the dynamics of entanglement in the curved spacetime is directly measured. Our results would stimulate more interests to explore information paradox, entropy and other related features of black holes using programmable superconducting processor with tunable couplers.
This paper investigates the application of quantum computing technology to airline gate-scheduling quadratic assignment problems (QAP). We explore the quantum computing hardware architecture and software environment required for porting classical versions of these type of problems to quantum computers. We discuss the variational quantum eigensolver and the inclusion of space-efficient graph coloring to the Quadratic Unconstrained Binary Optimization (QUBO). These enhanced quantum computing algorithms are tested with an 8 gate and 24 flight test case using both the IBM quantum computing simulator and a 27 qubit superconducting transmon IBM quantum computing hardware platform.
The utility of classical neural networks as universal approximators suggests that their quantum analogues could play an important role in quantum generalizations of machine-learning methods. Inspired by the proposal in [Torrontegui and García-Ripoll 2019 EPL 125 30004], we demonstrate a superconducting qubit implementation of an adiabatic controlled gate, which generalizes the action of a classical perceptron as the basic building block of a quantum neural network. We show full control over the steepness of the perceptron activation function, the input weight and the bias by tuning the adiabatic gate length, the coupling between the qubits and the frequency of the applied drive, respectively. In its general form, the gate realizes a multi-qubit entangling operation in a single step, whose decomposition into single- and two-qubit gates would require a number of gates that is exponential in the number of qubits. Its demonstrated direct implementation as perceptron in quantum hardware may therefore lead to more powerful quantum neural networks when combined with suitable additional standard gates.
We construct reversible Boolean circuits efficiently simulating reversible Turing machines. Both the circuits and the simulation proof are rather simple. Then we give a fairly straightforward generalization of the circuits and the simulation proof to the quantum case.
We introduce a systematically improvable family of variational wave functions for the simulation of strongly correlated fermionic systems. This family consists of Slater determinants in an augmented Hilbert space involving “hidden” additional fermionic degrees of freedom. These determinants are projected onto the physical Hilbert space through a constraint which is optimized, together with the single-particle orbitals, using a neural network parametrization. This construction draws inspiration from the success of hidden particle representations but overcomes the limitations associated with the mean-field treatment of the constraint often used in this context. Our construction provides an extremely expressive family of wave functions, which is proven to be universal. We apply this construction to the ground state properties of the Hubbard model on the square lattice, achieving levels of accuracy which are competitive with and in some cases superior to state-of-the-art computational methods.