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## A Practical Guide to the Numerical Implementation of Tensor Networks I: Contractions, Decompositions and Gauge Freedom

Glen Evenbly

Feb 07 2022Â quant-phÂ cond-mat.str-elÂ arXiv:2202.02138v1

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We present an overview of the key ideas and skills necessary to begin implementing tensor network methods numerically, which is intended to facilitate the practical application of tensor network methods for researchers that are already versed with their theoretical foundations. These skills include an introduction to the contraction of tensor networks, to optimal tensor decompositions, and to the manipulation of gauge degrees of freedom in tensor networks. The topics presented are of key importance to many common tensor network algorithms such as DMRG, TEBD, TRG, PEPS and MERA.

## Entanglement estimation in tensor network states via sampling

Feb 10 2022Â cond-mat.str-elÂ cond-mat.stat-mechÂ quant-phÂ arXiv:2202.04089v1

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We introduce a method for extracting meaningful entanglement measures of tensor network states in general dimensions. Current methods require the explicit reconstruction of the density matrix, which is highly demanding, or the contraction of replicas, which requires an effort exponential in the number of replicas and which is costly in terms of memory. In contrast, our method requires the stochastic sampling of matrix elements of the classically represented reduced states with respect to random states drawn from simple product probability measures constituting frames. Even though not corresponding to physical operations, such matrix elements are straightforward to calculate for tensor network states, and their moments provide the RĂ©nyi entropies and negativities as well as their symmetry-resolved components. We test our method on the one-dimensional critical XX chain and the two-dimensional toric code. Although the cost is exponential in the subsystem size, it is sufficiently moderate so that – in contrast with other approaches – accurate results can be obtained on a personal computer for relatively large subsystem sizes.

## Identification of topological phases using classically-optimized variational quantum eigensolver

Feb 08 2022Â quant-phÂ arXiv:2202.02909v1

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Variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) is regarded as a promising candidate of hybrid quantum-classical algorithm for the near-term quantum computers. Meanwhile, VQE is confronted with a challenge that statistical error associated with the measurement as well as systematic error could significantly hamper the optimization. To circumvent this issue, we propose classically-optimized VQE (co-VQE), where the whole process of the optimization is efficiently conducted on a classical computer. The efficacy of the method is guaranteed by the observation that quantum circuits with a constant (or logarithmic) depth are classically tractable via simulations of local subsystems. In co-VQE, we only use quantum computers to measure nonlocal quantities after the parameters are optimized. As proof-of-concepts, we present numerical experiments on quantum spin models with topological phases. After the optimization, we identify the topological phases by nonlocal order parameters as well as unsupervised machine learning on inner products between quantum states. The proposed method maximizes the advantage of using quantum computers while avoiding strenuous optimization on noisy quantum devices. Furthermore, in terms of quantum machine learning, our study shows an intriguing approach that employs quantum computers to generate data of quantum systems while using classical computers for the learning process.

## Noise fingerprints in quantum computers: Machine learning software tools

Feb 10 2022Â quant-phÂ cs.LGÂ arXiv:2202.04581v1

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In this paper we present the high-level functionalities of a quantum-classical machine learning software, whose purpose is to learn the main features (the fingerprint) of quantum noise sources affecting a quantum device, as a quantum computer. Specifically, the software architecture is designed to classify successfully (more than 99% of accuracy) the noise fingerprints in different quantum devices with similar technical specifications, or distinct time-dependences of a noise fingerprint in single quantum machines.

## Parametric t-Stochastic Neighbor Embedding With Quantum Neural Network

Feb 10 2022Â quant-phÂ cs.LGÂ arXiv:2202.04238v1

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t-Stochastic Neighbor Embedding (t-SNE) is a non-parametric data visualization method in classical machine learning. It maps the data from the high-dimensional space into a low-dimensional space, especially a two-dimensional plane, while maintaining the relationship, or similarities, between the surrounding points. In t-SNE, the initial position of the low-dimensional data is randomly determined, and the visualization is achieved by moving the low-dimensional data to minimize a cost function. Its variant called parametric t-SNE uses neural networks for this mapping. In this paper, we propose to use quantum neural networks for parametric t-SNE to reflect the characteristics of high-dimensional quantum data on low-dimensional data. We use fidelity-based metrics instead of Euclidean distance in calculating high-dimensional data similarity. We visualize both classical (Iris dataset) and quantum (time-depending Hamiltonian dynamics) data for classification tasks. Since this method allows us to represent a quantum dataset in a higher dimensional Hilbert space by a quantum dataset in a lower dimension while keeping their similarity, the proposed method can also be used to compress quantum data for further quantum machine learning.

## Uncovering Instabilities in Variational-Quantum Deep Q-Networks

Feb 11 2022Â quant-phÂ cs.AIÂ arXiv:2202.05195v1

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Deep Reinforcement Learning (RL) has considerably advanced over the past decade. At the same time, state-of-the-art RL algorithms require a large computational budget in terms of training time to converge. Recent work has started to approach this problem through the lens of quantum computing, which promises theoretical speed-ups for several traditionally hard tasks. In this work, we examine a class of hybrid quantumclassical RL algorithms that we collectively refer to as variational quantum deep Q-networks (VQ-DQN). We show that VQ-DQN approaches are subject to instabilities that cause the learned policy to diverge, study the extent to which this afflicts reproduciblity of established results based on classical simulation, and perform systematic experiments to identify potential explanations for the observed instabilities. Additionally, and in contrast to most existing work on quantum reinforcement learning, we execute RL algorithms on an actual quantum processing unit (an IBM Quantum Device) and investigate differences in behaviour between simulated and physical quantum systems that suffer from implementation deficiencies. Our experiments show that, contrary to opposite claims in the literature, it cannot be conclusively decided if known quantum approaches, even if simulated without physical imperfections, can provide an advantage as compared to classical approaches. Finally, we provide a robust, universal and well-tested implementation of VQ-DQN as a reproducible testbed for future experiments.

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