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Limitations of variational quantum algorithms: a quantum optimal transport approach

Giacomo De Palma, Milad Marvian, Cambyse Rouzé, Daniel Stilck França

Apr 08 2022 quant-ph arXiv:2204.03455v1

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The impressive progress in quantum hardware of the last years has raised the interest of the quantum computing community in harvesting the computational power of such devices. However, in the absence of error correction, these devices can only reliably implement very shallow circuits or comparatively deeper circuits at the expense of a nontrivial density of errors. In this work, we obtain extremely tight limitation bounds for standard NISQ proposals in both the noisy and noiseless regimes, with or without error-mitigation tools. The bounds limit the performance of both circuit model algorithms, such as QAOA, and also continuous-time algorithms, such as quantum annealing. In the noisy regime with local depolarizing noise pp, we prove that at depths L=\cO(p−1)L=\cO(p−1) it is exponentially unlikely that the outcome of a noisy quantum circuit outperforms efficient classical algorithms for combinatorial optimization problems like Max-Cut. Although previous results already showed that classical algorithms outperform noisy quantum circuits at constant depth, these results only held for the expectation value of the output. Our results are based on newly developed quantum entropic and concentration inequalities, which constitute a homogeneous toolkit of theoretical methods from the quantum theory of optimal mass transport whose potential usefulness goes beyond the study of variational quantum algorithms.

Quantum variational learning for quantum error-correcting codes

Chenfeng Cao, Chao Zhang, Zipeng Wu, Markus Grassl, Bei Zeng

Apr 08 2022 quant-ph arXiv:2204.03560v1

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Quantum error-correcting codes (QECCs) are believed to be a necessity for large-scale fault-tolerant quantum computation. In the past two decades, various methods of QECC constructions have been developed, leading to many good families of codes. However, the majority of these codes are not suitable for near-term quantum devices. Here we present VarQEC, a noise-resilient variational quantum algorithm to search for quantum codes with a hardware-efficient encoding circuit. The cost functions are inspired by the most general and fundamental requirements of a QECC, the Knill-Laflamme conditions. Given the target noise channel (or the target code parameters) and the hardware connectivity graph, we optimize a shallow variational quantum circuit to prepare the basis states of an eligible code. In principle, VarQEC can find quantum codes for any error model, whether additive or non-additive, degenerate or non-degenerate, pure or impure. We have verified its effectiveness by (re)discovering some symmetric and asymmetric codes, e.g., ((n,2n−6,3))2((n,2n−6,3))2 for nn from 7 to 14. We also found new ((6,2,3))2((6,2,3))2 and ((7,2,3))2((7,2,3))2 codes that are not equivalent to any stabilizer code, and extensive numerical evidence with VarQEC suggests that a ((7,3,3))2((7,3,3))2 code does not exist. Furthermore, we found many new channel-adaptive codes for error models involving nearest-neighbor correlated errors. Our work sheds new light on the understanding of QECC in general, which may also help to enhance near-term device performance with channel-adaptive error-correcting codes.

Experimental quantum adversarial learning with programmable superconducting qubits

Wenhui Ren, Weikang Li, Shibo Xu, Ke Wang, Wenjie Jiang, Feitong Jin, Xuhao Zhu, Jiachen Chen, Zixuan Song, Pengfei Zhang, Hang Dong, Xu Zhang, Jinfeng Deng, Yu Gao, Chuanyu Zhang, Yaozu Wu, Bing Zhang, Qiujiang Guo, Hekang Li, Zhen Wang, et al (4)

Apr 06 2022 quant-ph cond-mat.dis-nn cs.AI cs.LG arXiv:2204.01738v1

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Quantum computing promises to enhance machine learning and artificial intelligence. Different quantum algorithms have been proposed to improve a wide spectrum of machine learning tasks. Yet, recent theoretical works show that, similar to traditional classifiers based on deep classical neural networks, quantum classifiers would suffer from the vulnerability problem: adding tiny carefully-crafted perturbations to the legitimate original data samples would facilitate incorrect predictions at a notably high confidence level. This will pose serious problems for future quantum machine learning applications in safety and security-critical scenarios. Here, we report the first experimental demonstration of quantum adversarial learning with programmable superconducting qubits. We train quantum classifiers, which are built upon variational quantum circuits consisting of ten transmon qubits featuring average lifetimes of 150 μμs, and average fidelities of simultaneous single- and two-qubit gates above 99.94% and 99.4% respectively, with both real-life images (e.g., medical magnetic resonance imaging scans) and quantum data. We demonstrate that these well-trained classifiers (with testing accuracy up to 99%) can be practically deceived by small adversarial perturbations, whereas an adversarial training process would significantly enhance their robustness to such perturbations. Our results reveal experimentally a crucial vulnerability aspect of quantum learning systems under adversarial scenarios and demonstrate an effective defense strategy against adversarial attacks, which provide a valuable guide for quantum artificial intelligence applications with both near-term and future quantum devices.

Peptide conformational sampling using the Quantum Approximate Optimization AlgorithmSami Boulebnane, Xavier Lucas, Agnes Meyder, Stanislaw Adaszewski, Ashley MontanaroApr 06 2022 quant-ph arXiv:2204.01821v1Scite!16  PDFProtein folding — the problem of predicting the spatial structure of a protein given its sequence of amino-acids — has attracted considerable research effort in biochemistry in recent decades. In this work, we explore the potential of quantum computing to solve a simplified version of protein folding. More precisely, we numerically investigate the performance of a variational quantum algorithm, the Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA), in sampling low-energy conformations of short peptides. We start by benchmarking the algorithm on an even simpler problem: sampling self-avoiding walks, which is a necessary condition for a valid protein conformation. Motivated by promising results achieved by QAOA on this problem, we then apply the algorithm to a more complete version of protein folding, including a simplified physical potential. In this case, based on numerical simulations on 20 qubits, we find less promising results: deep quantum circuits are required to achieve accurate results, and the performance of QAOA can be matched by random sampling up to a small overhead. Overall, these results cast serious doubt on the ability of QAOA to address the protein folding problem in the near term, even in an extremely simplified setting. We believe that the approach and conclusions presented in this work could offer valuable methodological insights on how to systematically evaluate variational quantum optimization algorithms on real-world problems beyond protein folding.

Perceval: A Software Platform for Discrete Variable Photonic Quantum Computing

Nicolas Heurtel, Andreas Fyrillas, Grégoire de Gliniasty, Raphaël Le Bihan, Sébastien Malherbe, Marceau Pailhas, Boris Bourdoncle, Pierre-Emmanuel Emeriau, Rawad Mezher, Luka Music, Nadia Belabas, Benoît Valiron, Pascale Senellart, Shane Mansfield, Jean Senellart

Apr 04 2022 quant-ph physics.comp-ph arXiv:2204.00602v1

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We introduce Perceval, an evolutive open-source software platform for simulating and interfacing with discrete variable photonic quantum computers, and describe its main features and components. Its Python front-end allows photonic circuits to be composed from basic photonic building blocks like photon sources, beam splitters, phase shifters and detectors. A variety of computational back-ends are available and optimised for different use-cases. These use state-of-the-art simulation techniques covering both weak simulation, or sampling, and strong simulation. We give examples of Perceval in action by reproducing a variety of photonic experiments and simulating photonic implementations of a range of quantum algorithms, from Grover’s and Shor’s to examples of quantum machine learning. Perceval is intended to be a useful toolkit both for experimentalists wishing to easily model, design, simulate, or optimise a discrete variable photonic experiment, and for theoreticians wishing to design algorithms and applications for discrete-variable photonic quantum computing platforms.

Variational Quantum Evolution Equation Solver

Fong Yew Leong, Wei-Bin Ewe, Dax Enshan Koh

Apr 07 2022 quant-ph physics.comp-ph arXiv:2204.02912v1

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Variational quantum algorithms offer a promising new paradigm for solving partial differential equations on near-term quantum computers. Here, we propose a variational quantum algorithm for solving a general evolution equation through implicit time-stepping of the Laplacian operator. The use of encoded source states informed by preceding solution vectors results in faster convergence compared to random re-initialization. Through statevector simulations of the heat equation, we demonstrate how the time complexity of our algorithm scales with the ansatz volume for gradient estimation and how the time-to-solution scales with the diffusion parameter. Our proposed algorithm extends economically to higher-order time-stepping schemes, such as the Crank-Nicolson method. We present a semi-implicit scheme for solving systems of evolution equations with non-linear terms, such as the reaction-diffusion and the incompressible Navier-Stokes equations, and demonstrate its validity by proof-of-concept results.

Data-Driven Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm for Cyber-Physical Power Systems

Hang Jing, Ye Wang, Yan Li

Apr 05 2022 quant-ph cs.SY eess.SY arXiv:2204.00738v1

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Quantum technology provides a ground-breaking methodology to tackle challenging computational issues in power systems, especially for Distributed Energy Resources (DERs) dominant cyber-physical systems that have been widely developed to promote energy sustainability. The systems’ maximum power or data sections are essential for monitoring, operation, and control, while high computational effort is required. Quantum Approximate Optimization Algorithm (QAOA) provides a promising means to search for these sections by leveraging quantum resources. However, its performance highly relies on the critical parameters, especially for weighted graphs. We present a data-driven QAOA, which transfers quasi-optimal parameters between weighted graphs based on the normalized graph density, and verify the strategy with 39,774 instances. Without parameter optimization, our data-driven QAOA is comparable with the Goemans-Williamson algorithm. This work advances QAOA and pilots the practical application of quantum technique to power systems in noisy intermediate-scale quantum devices, heralding its next-generation computation in the quantum era.

Quantum approximate optimization algorithm for qudit systems with long-range interactions

Yannick Deller, Sebastian Schmitt, Maciej Lewenstein, Steve Lenk, Marika Federer, Fred Jendrzejewski, Philipp Hauke, Valentin Kasper

Apr 04 2022 quant-ph cond-mat.quant-gas arXiv:2204.00340v1

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A frequent starting point of quantum computation platforms are two-state quantum systems, i.e., qubits. However, in the context of integer optimization problems, relevant to scheduling optimization and operations research, it is often more resource-efficient to employ quantum systems with more than two basis states, so-called qudits. Here, we discuss the quantum approximate optimization algorithm (QAOA) for qudits, layout its implementation in platforms with long-range interactions between qudits such as trapped ions, cold atomic mixtures, Rydberg atoms and atoms in cavities. We illustrate how the QAOA can be used to formulate a variety of integer optimization problems such as graph coloring problems or electric vehicle (EV) charging optimization. In addition, we comment on the implementation of constraints and describe three methods to include these into a quantum circuit of a QAOA by penalty contributions to the cost Hamiltonian, conditional gates using ancilla qubits, and a dynamical decoupling strategy. Finally, as a showcase of qudit-based QAOA, we present numerical results for a charging optimization problem mapped onto a max-kk-graph coloring problem. Our work illustrates the flexibility of qudit systems to solve integer optimization problems.

Ising machines as hardware solvers of combinatorial optimization problems

Naeimeh Mohseni, Peter L. McMahon, Tim Byrnes

Apr 04 2022 quant-ph physics.app-ph arXiv:2204.00276v1

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Ising machines are hardware solvers which aim to find the absolute or approximate ground states of the Ising model. The Ising model is of fundamental computational interest because it is possible to formulate any problem in the complexity class NP as an Ising problem with only polynomial overhead. A scalable Ising machine that outperforms existing standard digital computers could have a huge impact for practical applications for a wide variety of optimization problems. In this review, we survey the current status of various approaches to constructing Ising machines and explain their underlying operational principles. The types of Ising machines considered here include classical thermal annealers based on technologies such as spintronics, optics, memristors, and digital hardware accelerators; dynamical-systems solvers implemented with optics and electronics; and superconducting-circuit quantum annealers. We compare and contrast their performance using standard metrics such as the ground-state success probability and time-to-solution, give their scaling relations with problem size, and discuss their strengths and weaknesses.

Quantum Machine Learning for Software Supply Chain Attacks: How Far Can We Go?

Mohammad Masum, Mohammad Nazim, Md Jobair Hossain Faruk, Hossain Shahriar, Maria Valero, Md Abdullah Hafiz Khan, Gias Uddin, Shabir Barzanjeh, Erhan Saglamyurek, Akond Rahman, Sheikh Iqbal Ahamed

Apr 07 2022 quant-ph cs.SE arXiv:2204.02784v1

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Quantum Computing (QC) has gained immense popularity as a potential solution to deal with the ever-increasing size of data and associated challenges leveraging the concept of quantum random access memory (QRAM). QC promises quadratic or exponential increases in computational time with quantum parallelism and thus offer a huge leap forward in the computation of Machine Learning algorithms. This paper analyzes speed up performance of QC when applied to machine learning algorithms, known as Quantum Machine Learning (QML). We applied QML methods such as Quantum Support Vector Machine (QSVM), and Quantum Neural Network (QNN) to detect Software Supply Chain (SSC) attacks. Due to the access limitations of real quantum computers, the QML methods were implemented on open-source quantum simulators such as IBM Qiskit and TensorFlow Quantum. We evaluated the performance of QML in terms of processing speed and accuracy and finally, compared with its classical counterparts. Interestingly, the experimental results differ to the speed up promises of QC by demonstrating higher computational time and lower accuracy in comparison to the classical approaches for SSC attacks.

Security Aspects of Quantum Machine Learning: Opportunities, Threats and Defenses

Satwik Kundu, Swaroop Ghosh

Apr 08 2022 cs.CR cs.LG quant-ph arXiv:2204.03625v1

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In the last few years, quantum computing has experienced a growth spurt. One exciting avenue of quantum computing is quantum machine learning (QML) which can exploit the high dimensional Hilbert space to learn richer representations from limited data and thus can efficiently solve complex learning tasks. Despite the increased interest in QML, there have not been many studies that discuss the security aspects of QML. In this work, we explored the possible future applications of QML in the hardware security domain. We also expose the security vulnerabilities of QML and emerging attack models, and corresponding countermeasures.

Reconstructing Bayesian Networks on a Quantum Annealer

Enrico Zardini, Massimo Rizzoli, Sebastiano Dissegna, Enrico Blanzieri, Davide Pastorello

Apr 08 2022 cs.ET quant-ph arXiv:2204.03526v1

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Bayesian networks are widely used probabilistic graphical models, whose structure is hard to learn starting from the generated data. O’Gorman et al. have proposed an algorithm to encode this task, i.e., the Bayesian network structure learning (BSNL), into a form that can be solved through quantum annealing, but they have not provided an experimental evaluation of it. In this paper, we present (i) an implementation in Python of O’Gorman’s algorithm, (ii) a divide et impera approach that allows addressing BNSL problems of larger sizes in order to overcome the limitations imposed by the current architectures, and (iii) their empirical evaluation. Specifically, several problems with an increasing number of variables have been used in the experiments. The results have shown the effectiveness of O’Gorman’s formulation for BNSL instances of small sizes, and the superiority of the divide et impera approach on the direct execution of O’Gorman’s algorithm.

Classification of NEQR Processed Classical Images using Quantum Neural Networks (QNN)

Santanu Ganguly

Apr 07 2022 quant-ph cs.LG arXiv:2204.02797v1

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A quantum neural network (QNN) is interpreted today as any quantum circuit with trainable continuous parameters. This work builds on previous works by the authors and addresses QNN for image classification with Novel Enhanced Quantum Representation of (NEQR) processed classical data where Principal component analysis (PCA) and Projected Quantum Kernel features (PQK) were investigated previously by the authors as a path to quantum advantage for the same classical dataset. For each of these cases the Fashion-MNIST dataset was downscaled using PCA to convert into quantum data where the classical NN easily outperformed the QNN. However, we demonstrated quantum advantage by using PQK where quantum models achieved more than ~90% accuracy surpassing their classical counterpart on the same training dataset as in the first case. In this current work, we use the same dataset fed into a QNN and compare that with performance of a classical NN model. We built an NEQR model circuit to pre-process the same data and feed the images into the QNN. Our results showed marginal improvements (only about ~5.0%) where the QNN performance with NEQR exceeded the performance of QNN without NEQR. We conclude that given the computational cost and the massive circuit depth associated with running NEQR, the advantage offered by this specific Quantum Image Processing (QIMP) algorithm is questionable at least for classical image dataset. No actual quantum computing hardware platform exists today that can support the circuit depth needed to run NEQR even for the reduced image sizes of our toy classical dataset.

Continuous Variable Quantum MNIST Classifiers

Sophie Choe

Apr 05 2022 quant-ph cs.LG arXiv:2204.01194v1

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In this paper, classical and continuous variable (CV) quantum neural network hybrid multiclassifiers are presented using the MNIST dataset. The combination of cutoff dimension and probability measurement method in the CV model allows a quantum circuit to produce output vectors of size equal to n raised to the power of n where n represents cutoff dimension and m, the number of qumodes. They are then translated as one-hot encoded labels, padded with an appropriate number of zeros. The total of eight different classifiers are built using 2,3,…,8 qumodes, based on the binary classifier architecture proposed in Continuous variable quantum neural networks. The displacement gate and the Kerr gate in the CV model allow for the bias addition and nonlinear activation components of classical neural networks to quantum. The classifiers are composed of a classical feedforward neural network, a quantum data encoding circuit, and a CV quantum neural network circuit. On a truncated MNIST dataset of 600 samples, a 4 qumode hybrid classifier achieves 100% training accuracy.

A quantum learning approach based on Hidden Markov Models for failure scenarios generation

Ahmed Zaiou, Younès Bennani, Basarab Matei, Mohamed Hibti

Apr 04 2022 quant-ph cs.LG arXiv:2204.00087v1

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Finding the failure scenarios of a system is a very complex problem in the field of Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA). In order to solve this problem we will use the Hidden Quantum Markov Models (HQMMs) to create a generative model. Therefore, in this paper, we will study and compare the results of HQMMs and classical Hidden Markov Models HMM on a real datasets generated from real small systems in the field of PSA. As a quality metric we will use Description accuracy DA and we will show that the quantum approach gives better results compared with the classical approach, and we will give a strategy to identify the probable and no-probable failure scenarios of a system.

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