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- New Quantum Cryptographic Primitives II
Jun 14 2022 quant-ph arXiv:2206.06362v1
Recently, several noise benchmarking algorithms have been developed to characterize noisy quantum gates on today’s quantum devices. A well-known issue in benchmarking is that not everything about quantum noise is learnable due to the existence of gauge freedom, leaving open the question of what information about noise is learnable and what is not, which has been unclear even for a single CNOT gate. Here we give a precise characterization of the learnability of Pauli noise channels attached to Clifford gates, showing that learnable information corresponds to the cycle space of the pattern transfer graph of the gate set, while unlearnable information corresponds to the cut space. This implies the optimality of cycle benchmarking, in the sense that it can learn all learnable information about Pauli noise. We experimentally demonstrate noise characterization of IBM’s CNOT gate up to 2 unlearnable degrees of freedom, for which we obtain bounds using physical constraints. In addition, we give an attempt to characterize the unlearnable information by assuming perfect initial state preparation. However, based on the experimental data, we conclude that this assumption is inaccurate as it yields unphysical estimates, and we obtain a lower bound on state preparation noise.
Currently available quantum computers suffer from constraints including hardware noise and a limited number of qubits. As such, variational quantum algorithms that utilise a classical optimiser in order to train a parameterised quantum circuit have drawn significant attention for near-term practical applications of quantum technology. In this work, we take a probabilistic point of view and reformulate the classical optimisation as an approximation of a Bayesian posterior. The posterior is induced by combining the cost function to be minimised with a prior distribution over the parameters of the quantum circuit. We describe a dimension reduction strategy based on a maximum a posteriori point estimate with a Laplace prior. Experiments on the Quantinuum H1-2 computer show that the resulting circuits are faster to execute and less noisy than the circuits trained without the dimension reduction strategy. We subsequently describe a posterior sampling strategy based on stochastic gradient Langevin dynamics. Numerical simulations on three different problems show that the strategy is capable of generating samples from the full posterior and avoiding local optima.
Tensor network contraction is central to problems ranging from many-body physics to computer science. We describe how to approximate tensor network contraction through bond compression on arbitrary graphs. In particular, we introduce a hyper-optimization over the compression and contraction strategy itself to minimize error and cost. We demonstrate that our protocol outperforms both hand-crafted contraction strategies as well as recently proposed general contraction algorithms on a variety of synthetic problems on regular lattices and random regular graphs. We further showcase the power of the approach by demonstrating compressed contraction of tensor networks for frustrated three-dimensional lattice partition functions, dimer counting on random regular graphs, and to access the hardness transition of random tensor network models, in graphs with many thousands of tensors.
Jun 14 2022 quant-ph arXiv:2206.06348v1
Trading fidelity for scale enables approximate classical simulators such as matrix product states (MPS) to run quantum circuits beyond exact methods. A control parameter, the so-called bond dimension χχ for MPS, governs the allocated computational resources and the output fidelity. Here, we characterize the fidelity for the quantum approximate optimization algorithm by the expectation value of the cost function it seeks to minimize and find that it follows a scaling law F(lnχ/N)F(lnχ/N) with NN the number of qubits. With lnχlnχ amounting to the entanglement that an MPS can encode, we show that the relevant variable for investigating the fidelity is the entanglement per qubit. Importantly, our results calibrate the classical computational power required to achieve the desired fidelity and benchmark the performance of quantum hardware in a realistic setup. For instance, we quantify the hardness of performing better classically than a noisy superconducting quantum processor by readily matching its output to the scaling function. Moreover, we relate the global fidelity to that of individual operations and establish its relationship with χχ and NN. We pave the way for noisy quantum computers to outperform classical techniques at running a quantum optimization algorithm in speed, size, and fidelity.
Quantum Policy Iteration via Amplitude Estimation and Grover Search — Towards Quantum Advantage for Reinforcement Learning
We present a full implementation and simulation of a novel quantum reinforcement learning (RL) method and mathematically prove a quantum advantage. Our approach shows in detail how to combine amplitude estimation and Grover search into a policy evaluation and improvement scheme. We first develop quantum policy evaluation (QPE) which is quadratically more efficient compared to an analogous classical Monte Carlo estimation and is based on a quantum mechanical realization of a finite Markov decision process (MDP). Building on QPE, we derive a quantum policy iteration that repeatedly improves an initial policy using Grover search until the optimum is reached. Finally, we present an implementation of our algorithm for a two-armed bandit MDP which we then simulate. The results confirm that QPE provides a quantum advantage in RL problems.
The noisy intermediate-scale quantum (NISQ) devices enable the implementation of the variational quantum circuit (VQC) for quantum neural networks (QNN). Although the VQC-based QNN has succeeded in many machine learning tasks, the representation and generalization powers of VQC still require further investigation, particularly when the dimensionality reduction of classical inputs is concerned. In this work, we first put forth an end-to-end quantum neural network, namely, TTN-VQC, which consists of a quantum tensor network based on a tensor-train network (TTN) for dimensionality reduction and a VQC for functional regression. Then, we aim at the error performance analysis for the TTN-VQC in terms of representation and generalization powers. We also characterize the optimization properties of TTN-VQC by leveraging the Polyak-Lojasiewicz (PL) condition. Moreover, we conduct the experiments of functional regression on a handwritten digit classification dataset to justify our theoretical analysis.
Comparative analysis of error mitigation techniques for variational quantum eigensolver implementations on IBM quantum system
Quantum computers are anticipated to transcend classical supercomputers for computationally intensive tasks by exploiting the principles of quantum mechanics. However, the capabilities of the current generation of quantum devices are limited due to noise or errors, and therefore implementation of error mitigation and/or correction techniques is pivotal to reliably process quantum algorithms. In this work, we have performed a comparative analysis of the error mitigation capability of the [[4,2,2]] quantum error-detecting code (QEC method), duplicate circuit technique, and the Bayesian read-out error mitigation (BREM) approach in the context of proof-of-concept implementations of variational quantum eigensolver (VQE) algorithm for determining the ground state energy of H22 molecule. Based on experiments on IBM quantum device, our results show that the duplicate circuit approach performs superior to the QEC method in the presence of the hardware noise. A significant impact of cross-talk noise was observed when multiple mappings of the duplicate circuit and the QEC method were implemented simultaneously −− again the duplicate circuit approach overall performed better than the QEC method. To gain further insights into the performance of the studied error mitigation techniques, we also performed quantum simulations on IBM system with varying strengths of depolarising circuit noise and read-out errors which further supported the main finding of our work that the duplicate circuit offer superior performance towards mitigating of errors when compared to the QEC method. Our work reports a first assessment of the duplicate circuit approach for a quantum algorithm implementation and the documented evidence will pave the way for future scalable implementations of the duplicated circuit techniques for the error-mitigated practical applications of near-term quantum computers.
Deep learning methods have been shown to be effective in representing ground-state wave functions of quantum many-body systems. Existing methods use convolutional neural networks (CNNs) for square lattices due to their image-like structures. For non-square lattices, existing method uses graph neural network (GNN) in which structure information is not precisely captured, thereby requiring additional hand-crafted sublattice encoding. In this work, we propose lattice convolutions in which a set of proposed operations are used to convert non-square lattices into grid-like augmented lattices on which regular convolution can be applied. Based on the proposed lattice convolutions, we design lattice convolutional networks (LCN) that use self-gating and attention mechanisms. Experimental results show that our method achieves performance on par or better than existing methods on spin 1/2 J1J1-J2J2 Heisenberg model over the square, honeycomb, triangular, and kagome lattices while without using hand-crafted encoding.
Jun 15 2022 quant-ph arXiv:2206.06736v1
We revisit the application of neural networks techniques to quantum state tomography. We confirm that the positivity constraint can be successfully implemented with trained networks that convert outputs from standard feed-forward neural networks to valid descriptions of quantum states. Any standard neural-network architecture can be adapted with our method. Our results open possibilities to use state-of-the-art deep-learning methods for quantum state reconstruction under various types of noise.